Walk with Naturalists – July 19, 2015

July 19, 2015.

Kennebunk Plains Wildlife Management Area.

Fifteen people gathered at the north parking lot of the Kennebunk Plains Wildlife Management Area to spend two hours exploring this unique ecological site. It was a warm, humid day (80° F) with a brilliant blue sky and white puffy clouds.

Prior to leaving the parking lot, there was a general discussion of the historical background of the Kennebunk Plains. The area was formed 14,000 years ago as the glaciers receded. The glacial melt water formed alluvial deposits of sand (90’ deep in the area of the Plains) and became what is now termed sandplain grasslands. It is the rarest natural community in New England.

The Kennebunk Plains Wildlife Management Area (KPWMA) is comprised of +/-1700 acres and is home to several unique and rare species: The Northern Black Racer (Coluber constrictor constructor) (see picture below), The Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) (see picture below) and Upland Sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda).

Black Racer

Grasshopper Sparrow

The KPWMA is also home to a rare plant: The Northern Blazing Star (Liatris borealis) (see picture below). There are estimated to be a million stems on the Plains. In fact, most of the Northern Blazing Star in the world is located here. The group observed only a few plants with open blooms as this was just the beginning of the blooming season.

Northern Blazing Star

The walk started down the road to the west of the parking and headed north toward the rear of the Plains. Along the road several plant species were identified: the shrub, Meadow Sweet (Spiraea latifolia), Blue Toadflax (Linaria canadensis) and Spreading Dogbane (Apocynum androsaemifolium). While looking at the Spreading Dogbane plant, the group observed several Dogbane Beetles (Chrysochus auratus) (see picture below) which are brilliantly iridescent. The group examined and identified several examples of Whorled Loosestrife (Lysimachia quadrifolia), a small yellow wildflower. Several examples of Tiger Lily (Lilium tigrinum) were seen. (see picture below)

Dogbane Beetle

Tiger Lily

In the midst of the sandplain grassland the group had a general discussion about grasses, rushes and sedges and how they are generally differentiated. The group also talked about the preponderance of Gray Birch (Betula populifolia) as a succession species in the grassland.

We also learned to differentiate the three primary types of pines in the southern part of Maine; Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus), Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) and Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida). They are most easily differentiated by the number of needles in each bundle of needles: Eastern White Pine (5), Red Pine (2) and Pitch Pine (3). The group also discussed the maintenance of the grasslands through periodic controlled fire burns.

The walk continued to the small spring-fed pond formed by Cold Brook which eventually empties into the Mousam River. The pond in prior times was used to irrigate the commercial blueberry operation on the Kennebunk Plains. Along the path to the pond were seen Bracken (fern) (Pteridium aquilinum), Speckled Alder (Alnus incana ssp. rugosa), Cinnamon Fern (Osmunda cinnamomea), Common Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) and Bear Oak (Quercus ilicifolia). Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia serotina) were also seen and identified along the path.

Upon reaching the pond, the group learned about the origin of Cold Brook and the pond which was man-made using a large earthen dam. Native Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) live in the pond and were rising to the surface. Two young men were fishing and caught several small trout. They released the fish back into the pond.

On the way back to the parking lot, the group saw an Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus) and a Tiger Swallowtail butterfly (Papilio canadensis) landing on a few of the open Northern Blazing Star flowers that had opened their blooms.

Just a few of the highlights of the walk–an interesting day in a unique natural area!

Walk with Naturalists – April 11, 2015

April 11, 2015.

Clark Preserve / Eastern Trail.

Saturday was beautiful day with clouds and a blue sky. The temperature was in the forties and the trail was still mostly snow-covered. The group consisted of four leaders and seven guests; some of whom were from out of state and had seen our announcements in the paper. Tom McClain, a KLT volunteer, took the picture which follows:

After initial introductions we hit the trail and started our discussions with description of the forest type found in the KLT Clark Preserve (mixed hardwood/conifer forest).

After initial introductions we hit the trail and started our discussions with description of the forest type found in the KLT Clark Preserve (mixed hardwood/conifer forest). Examples of various conifers were collected and described: Eastern White Pine (on the left in the picture below), Hemlock (middle of picture) and Balsam Fir (on the right).

The walk continued past an area that would become a vernal pool after snow and ice melt. The attributes of vernal pools were discussed; ephemeral, no fish and the presence of obligate species (indicators): Fairy Shrimp, Wood Frogs, Spotted Salamander, Blue Spotted Salamander, Jefferson Salamander, Marbled Salamander and Spadefoot Toad.

Once out on the Eastern Trail (which forms the eastern boundary of Clark Preserve) headed north, we stopped to observe several species of moss; hair club moss, tree club moss, sphagnum moss and Ulota crispa (Tree Cushion Moss – see picture below)

Cushion Moss

In areas where the snow had melted we were able to see Sheep Laurel, Partridge Berry (see photo) and Wintergreen – plants that basically remain green throughout the winter. We also identified highbush blueberry that was just beginning to bud.

Partridge Berry

Moving up the trail we came upon an area of the KLT Clark Preserve that borders on the Eastern Trail and resembles the early stages of a bog; sphagnum moss, grasses and wet peaty soil. Bogs are generally acidic and have black spruce growing on the margins.

We next spent some time talking about woody fungi that are present the year around compared to mushrooms that are seasonal. We looked at bracket fungi, birch polypore, turkey tail fungi (see picture) and violet tooth fungi.

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Birch Polypore[/lgc_column]

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Turkey Tail[/lgc_column]

We also observed and talked about lichens which are mutualistic plants consisting of a fungus and a green algae (sometimes a blue-green algae). Common Greenshield was the most prominent example we saw.

We also looked at a common liverwort that grows on hardwood – Frullania sp.(see photo)

Frullania sp.

Looking northward on the Eastern Trail we saw a flock of (17) wild turkeys crossing the trail and disappearing into the woods. We later studied the tracks made by them in the snow.

We walked as far as the Kennebunk River bridge. The river is the northern boundary of the Clark Preserve. As we turned around to retrace our steps, we observed a Ruffed Grouse crossing the trail. We next stopped along the trail to look at a pile of wood chips left by a Pileated Woodpecker as it worked the insect infested wood of an Eastern White Pine.

On the return portion of the walk we stopped and looked at an example of Black Knot on a Black Cherry twig. This is a disease which manifests itself as a noticeable black rough mass on small branches. It can be a serious problem on plum trees but generally does not kill cherry trees. The remainder of the walk to the parking lot was a review of some of the earlier tree identifications.

It was a nice day with a great group!